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People Who Make Movies
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|Making a movie takes many people. Hundreds of names may appear in the credits. |
When people think about movies, they usually think about movie stars. Stars are actors and actresses that large numbers of the movie-going public like to see. Of course, most films employ many other actors and actresses, as well as extras who appear in the background of scenes. Stunt people perform difficult or dangerous actions, often in place of the stars.
Many others work behind the scenes. The most important person on the set is the director, who tells the actors what to do and decides how the scenes are to be filmed. The director oversees most of the other people on the set as well, including the people who handle costumes, makeup, lighting, sound, and cameras
The screenwriter may not appear on the set but is very important all the same. This person puts the story together and writes the words the actors will speak. Some screenwriters make up their own stories. Others base their stories on source material that already exists—a novel, a play, a television program, or even an old movie. A screenplay may have several writers.
Another important member of the filmmaking team is the producer. Someone has to decide that a film is to be made, buy the rights to the source material, hire the screenwriter and director, raise the money to pay for everything, and arrange for the finished film to be shown in theaters around the world. Usually, that someone is a producer. A film may have many producers.
The cinematographer is also called the director of photography. This is a person who knows all about cameras, lenses, and lights, and can use them to create mood and atmosphere. The production designer decides what kind of space the action will take place in.
The costume designer decides what the actors will wear. These people command crews of workers. They work closely with the director to determine the “look” of the film—bright and cheerful for comedies, dark and threatening for horror films.
Sound crews include people on the set who record the dialogue and the background sounds. Many other sound people work in recording studios. Some of them re-record voices so that words of dialogue will be clearer. Others make sound effects such as footstep noises so that the actors' movements will seem more real.
Music is an important element in the sound track of most films. A composer writes original music to create mood. Many modern movies also have a music supervisor who places popular songs on the sound track.
Putting together the thousands of shots recorded for a movie is the job of the film editor. A scene may have been filmed from many angles and distances. When a character speaks, the editor decides whether to use a close-up of the actor's face, or a reaction shot of the person being spoken to, or a wide shot of the whole room. Mood and pacing often depend on editing. Film editing is so important that the director often works closely with the editor.
Special effects are an important part of many modern films. Special effects are tricks used to film things that would otherwise be too difficult or expensive to film. For example, miniature models of buildings or vehicles can be used to film such events as earthquakes, floods, fires, and explosions. Modern effects specialists often do their work on computer screens and then transfer the effects to film.
Презентация выполнена: Балабанова Ольга Юрьевна, учитель английского языка, МОУ СОШ №6, Апатиты.
Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.
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